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Sutures normally used in surgery. The suture can help heal the wound. As the surgery has developed a lot, the suture also has huge progress. Now the suture has a lot of kinds. Sutures can be broadly divided into two categories:
As the name suggests, the absorbable suture will eventually be absorbed into the body and will no longer be visible after a while. These sutures come in many types and sizes, each best suited for a particular surgical job or part of the body. The sutures vary in strength. Other differences include:
This is a monofilament synthetic absorbable suture made of polyester. They use FDA-approved dyes to make normal or colored colors. The suture is best suited for internal soft tissue approximation. It is particularly good in pediatric cardiovascular surgery and in growing tissue. The stitches are good and require up to six weeks of support.
PGA (polyglycolide acid)
This is a polyglycolic acid made of silk woven absorbable sutures. It is coated with N-laurin and L-lysine to make it smooth. It takes about 90 days to absorb. Sutures are very reliable and will remain effective during critical wound healing times. It forms a safety knot that is unlikely to yield. It is useful for subcutaneous wound closure and for various internal surgical uses.
PGCL is a synthetic absorbable or stained monofilament absorbable suture. The main indications are in soft tissue approximation, repair, and ligation bleeding. It is not suitable for cardiovascular or neurovascular surgery. The tensile strength gradually decreases and ends after about 4 weeks. It has a low incidence of inflammation. PGCL should not be used in the elderly, people who are malnourished or whose wound healing may be delayed.
These are natural absorbable sutures made of pure collagen tissue from cow intestines. It is suitable for the rapid regeneration of tissue. Some countries have phased out the use of gut in human surgery and only in veterinary surgery.
These are sutures that do not degrade by the body. Although the human body can try to do this, the process is so slow that if the suture is left in place, it stays there forever. When used externally, these sutures must be removed during an operation of about 7-10 days. As with absorbable stitches, synthetic and natural shapes are available. These are further divided into mono-filaments and multi-filaments. The multi-filament sutures are further divided according to the connection mode of the strands.
Silk is non-absorbable and is made of a natural protein silk material called fibrin. It is made into filamentous and woven types and then coated with wax or silicone to reduce water retention and is easy to handle. These sutures are suitable for many types of surgery, such as ophthalmic, neurosurgical, and cardiovascular surgery, as well as for sealing off many types of open wounds or surgical wounds. Although silk cannot be absorbed, it gradually loses its ability to stretch, so it may not be ideal where permanent stretching is required. The initial tissue response is minimal, and soon the sutures are covered with tough fibrous connective tissue.
Polyester sutures are synthetic and non-absorbable. They are made from polyethylene terephthalate. They are enduring and their tension does not change. This characteristic and minimal tissue response make them ideal for aesthetic surgery. Polyester non-absorbable sutures are also beneficial for heart surgery. They are coated or in a common format.
This is another class of synthetic non-absorbable sutures. It has good tensile and retention properties. It is made from isotactic crystal stereoisomers of polypropylene. The sutures are ideal for heart and vascular surgery. Other uses include ophthalmology and neurosurgery.
The size of the suture line varies, as does the size of the needle and tip characteristics. The type of sutures and needles used depends on the operation and the specific site of the suture and needle.